Is Article 21 available against private?

Asked by: Rossie Leannon Sr.  |  Last update: July 2, 2022
Score: 4.3/5 (41 votes)

But, where an act of private individual supported by the state infringes the personal liberty or life of another person, the act will certainly come under the ambit of Article 21. Article 21 of the Constitution deals with prevention of encroachment upon personal liberty or deprivation of life of a person.

Is Article 21 available against private individuals?

According to Article 21: “Protection of Life and Personal Liberty: No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.” This fundamental right is available to every person, citizens and foreigners alike.

Can fundamental rights be claimed against private individuals?

A writ petition can be filed in the High Court (Article 226) or the Supreme Court (Article 32) of India when any of your fundamental rights are violated.

Which rights are available against private individuals?

Fundamental Rights
  • Right to equality- Article14-18 of the constitution of India deals with the right to equality of every citizen of India. ...
  • Right to freedom- ...
  • Right against exploitation- ...
  • Right to freedom of religion- ...
  • Cultural and educational rights- ...
  • Right to constitutional remedies–

Is Article 19 available against private individuals?

Article 19(1)(d) of the Indian Constitution entitles every citizen to move freely throughout the territory of the country. This right is protected against only state action and not private individuals.

Article 21 of the Indian Constitution | With Important Case Laws In Hindi

25 related questions found

Is Article 15 available against private individuals?

Unfortunately, Article 15(2) is barely used in Indian constitutional practice. In discrimination jurisprudence, most cases are filed against the state, and not against private parties.

Is Article 16 private sector applicable?

Article 16 (1) of the Constitution assures such opportunity under the state or center mentioned under Article 12 and not to the private sector and thus in case of any refusal of the employment by any private body or a corporation, the individual cannot seek to the court for infringement of the fundamental right under ...

Can fundamental rights be enforced against private entity?

The Supreme Court of India has always stood on the opinion that fundamental right given under Indian constitution in case of violation can only be enforced against the public authorities and not private individuals.

What are private rights in India?

Union of India case, 2017, the Right to Privacy was declared a fundamental right by the Supreme Court. Right to privacy is protected as an intrinsic part of the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 and as a part of the freedoms guaranteed by Part III of the Constitution.

What means private individual?

private individual means an individual acting only for themselves and not representing any group, company or organisation.

Is privacy a fundamental right in India?

In 2017, the Supreme Court effectively declared the Right to Privacy a fundamental right, as it's “intrinsic" to our guarantee of “life and personal liberty" under the Constitution's Article 21 and other basic freedoms.

Do we have right to privacy?

In Griswold, the Supreme Court found a right to privacy, derived from penumbras of other explicitly stated constitutional protections. The Court used the personal protections expressly stated in the First, Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Ninth Amendments to find that there is an implied right to privacy in the Constitution.

Does Article 21 apply to companies?

21 from the right to carry on any trade or business, a fundamental right conferred by Art. 19(1)(g). Regarding the same, the Court held that the right to carry on trade or business is not included in the concept of life and personal liberty. Thus, Article 21 is not attracted in the case of trade and business.

Can we file a writ petition against a private company?

The fact that writ petitions can only be filed against government authorities or such connected persons and not private persons unless it affects the public at large or it is associated with a statutory body, is already known and the Allahabad High Court in the present matter has re-emphasized the same.

Which writ can be issued against private person also?

The correct answer is Habeas Corpus. Habeas Corpus can be issued against any private individual. Habeas Corpus in simple terms means to have a body'. It is a type of writ which is issued under Article 32.

Is right to privacy a civil right?

In 1992, the United States ratified the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), a human rights treaty that guarantees privacy rights. More specifically, Article 17 of the ICCPR protects everyone from arbitrary or unlawful interferences with their “privacy, family, home, or correspondence.”

Is WhatsApp performing a public function?

Given the foregoing fact, WhatsApp cannot be characterized as discharging a 'public' function for the purposes of Article 226. Consequently, and unfortunately, there are strong reasons to conclude that this petition may not be maintainable.

Are fundamental rights enforceable against private citizens or corporations Quora?

No. Fundamental rights can be enforced only against the State as the Constitution mandates so. Action can be taken against individuals or private corporations for violation of any law of the country.

Who can claim fundamental rights against whom fundamental rights are available?

The Fundamental Rights guaranteed by Articles 14, 20, 21, 21A, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 and 28 are available to all persons whether citizens or foreigners. The Fundamental Rights guaranteed by Articles 15, 16, 19, 29, and 30 are available only to citizens of India.

Is Article 21 available to foreigners?

Protection of Life and Personal Liberty: Article 21 declares that no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law. This right is available to both citizens and non-citizens.

Can there be reservation in private sector?

In the context of reservation in private sector, the Industry representatives are of the view that reservation is not a solution but are willing to partner with the Government and appropriate agencies in enhancing and expanding current recruitment policy for the marginalized section, especially the SC and ST at ll ...

What is Article 21 of the Indian Constitution?

As you all know, Article 21 deals with one of the fundamental Rights guaranteed by the Constitution of India. The Right to Protection of Life and personal liberty is the main object of Article 21 and it is a right guaranteed against State Action as distinguished from violation of such right by private individuals.

Is Article 32 available for foreigners?

Therefore, to summarize, a foreign juristic person can file a petition under Articles 226 and 32 to enforce the fundamental rights which are available to all citizens. However, the same cannot be used to invoke the rights that are denied to it under Article 19.

Is Article 17 self executory?

The non self executory fundamental rights are not implementable automatically. For their implementation, subsequent legislation is required. For example, Untouchability is a crime under Article 17 and for its implementation, Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 was brought in.

Does Article 15 1 apply to non citizens?

The scope of fundamental rights as per Article 15

Fundamental rights are applicable to all the citizens of the country universally irrespective of race, place of birth, caste, gender, or religion.